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IMMIGRATION POLICIES, ANALYSIS, AND RESOURCES

The Immigration Domain tracks and reports on policies that deal with illegal and legal immigration, refugee resettlement and sanctuary cities. This domain tracks policies emanating from the White House, the Justice Department, the Department of Homeland Security, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the US Border Patrol, and state and city government policies that respond to federal policies. Our Principal Analyst is Allie Blum who can be reached at allie@usresistnews.org.

Trump to End Medical Deferred Action

Trump to End Medical Deferred Action

Policy Summary
This past August, the US Customs and Immigration Services (USCIS) eliminated their ‘Medical Deferred Action’ program for individuals who may avoid deportation whilst they and/or their family members were undergoing medical treatment. Medical Deferred Action was intended as a temporary agenda, to be modified and made more robust, but not eliminated. This special program for individuals with rare diseases who may not have access to treatments in their home country rely heavily on the medical treatments they can  receive in the US – which also aids scientific development of medicines to treat such rare diseases. The agency sent letters to individuals previously exempt from deportation, giving them a 33 day notice to leave the country or else face deportation. Requests for deferred action must now be made to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE – the agency responsible for deportations) instead of USCIS. Previously, individuals had to re-apply/renew their deferred action every couple of years and many have been renewed for decades now. Those same individuals received letters from the USCIS telling them that their program support was coming to an end.. The elimination of the program is technically still under review, but it is unclear if there will be a limited version of deferred action or if the program  will be eliminated entirely.

CBS reached out to USCIS to inquire about the abrupt change, but they provided no answers and instead deflected by re-directing them to ICE. Confusingly, an ICE official told CBS that they were not previously consulted about the change but alerted once the letters were sent out to migrants. In reality, the government does not have  the time nor the resources to deport literally every single unauthorized immigrant.

As the news of this program termination began to trickle out, public outrage led to a temporary reversal by the Trump Administration. Roughly 100 members of Congress officially denounced this and wrote letters to senior officials at the Department of Homeland Security urging them to reverse their decision.

Analysis
There is a huge lack of transparency surrounding the end of this program. No public announcements were made, just private letters to specific individuals. The program termination is a death sentence for many of the individuals in the US under Medical Deferred Action. A number of individuals would essentially be sent home to die.

In the past 6 months, the Trump Administration also decided it would abstain from giving flu vaccinations to migrant families held in border detention centers, despite 3 deaths of migrant children due to the flu. These are subtle, but dire actions of intentional cruelty under the existing guise of national security.


Resistance Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • FWD.us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.

Photo by
unsplash-logoElias Castillo

Indefinite Detention of Migrants: Trump’s Latest Crackdown

Indefinite Detention of Migrants: Trump’s Latest Crackdown

Policy Summary
The Trump Administration recently announced they seek to enable indefinite detention of migrants, that would be a direct overturn of the Flores Settlement The new rule is set to go into effect within the next 2 months. Migrants would be legally detained until their cases are decided – which could take years. Trump believes that this will act as a deterrent for migrant families and in turn ‘save many lives,’ so as to essentially prevent families from making the sometimes dangerous trek to the United States. Acting head of Homeland Security, Kevin McAleenan finds this new policy to aid in avoiding the Catch and Release loophole that he credits to detention limitations.

Analysis
While this policy would almost certainly institutionalize and legalize imprisoning children on an even greater scale than already exists, the adverse effects of indefinite detainment are plenty. Unlike a prison sentence where perhaps a set release date is agreed upon, indefinite detention would permit an excruciating mental battle and destruction of morale among hundreds of thousands of migrants. Many migrants might never know the end of their imprisonment as the immigration courts can be quite slow and are increasingly overwhelmed. Needless to say, it can be days, months, and/or years of imprisonment bestowed upon any migrant who seeks to become a permanent resident of the United States.

Detained children often have PTSD and suicidal feelings post detainment, according to Human Rights Watch and various other human rights organizations. The American Psychological Association is highly critical of this new policy, stating:

The large majority of these children have already experienced trauma before arriving at immigration facilities, and the longer they are held in detention, the more likely their mental health will continue to suffer

Chronic stress and adversity severely effects the development of a child’s brain, especially in regards to cognition, intellectual process, judgement, self-regulation, and social skills.

Resistance Resources

  • First Focus on Children: a Washington, DC based advocacy organization dedicated to making children and their families a priority in federal policy and budget decisions.
  • Kids in Need of Defense: an organization that promotes the protection of children as they migrate alone in search of safety and ensuring children’s rights are upheld and respected.
  • Families Belong Together: an organization that has dedicated its mission to ensuring families are together, especially reuniting children with their families. This organization contributes all its efforts to counter Trump’s separation of children from their families.

Photo by unsplash-logoKatie Moum

Trump Administration to Limit Green Cards: an Update

Trump Administration to Limit Green Cards: an Update

Policy Summary
The acting US Citizenship and Immigration Services Director, Ken Cuccinelli, announced the Trump Administration’s proposal to limit Green Card applicants and essentially make them more exclusive. This is aimed at the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who enter illegally every year and apply to become permanent residents. Beginning in October – a full year since the first indicator of this policy change – Green Card decisions will be made based on an aggressive wealth test to determine whether applications have the means to support themselves. If applicants are deemed likely to require assistance from government benefit programs (such as food stamps and subsidized housing) they will likely be denied. The new Green Card criteria will examine age, health, family status, resources, education, financial status, and assets. For example, someone with an income equal to or greater than 250% of the poverty line (which comes out to nearly $64,000 for a family of 4) will be less likely to be denied.

Cuccinelli claimed the goal was to bring:

People to join us as American citizens, as legal permanent residents first, who can stand on their own two feet, who will not be reliant on the welfare system, especially in the age of the modern welfare state which is so expansive and expensive

According to the US Citizenship and Immigration services website, to obtain a Green Card entails a few steps. First, an immigrant petition must be filed by a sponsor, or essentially someone who can vouch for the applicant. If this is approved, the individual must fill out a Green Card application with the USCIS or a visa application with the US Department of State (depending on the results of the petition). Then, the individual must go to a biometrics appointment to provide photos, signatures and fingerprints before a final interview. Lastly, they wait for a decision.

San Francisco and Santa Clara counties have filed lawsuits against the Trump Administration to challenge their move to deny permanent residence to legal immigrants who use or potentially will use public-assistance programs; claiming it is both harmful to society and unlawful.

Analysis
This new policy puts a price tag on obtaining permanent residency in the US and favors wealthy or highly skilled immigrants. It shifts away from family-based immigration, a long-standing US outlook. Limiting Green Cards to the upper echelon of society creates uneven immigration, extreme gaps in the labor force, and disregards America’s foundation of providing asylum.

Resistance Resources

  • The Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law: a nonpartisan law and policy institute that works to defend and reform – as necessary – the US systems of democracy and justice, focusing on upholding the Constitution and US laws while maintaining national security.
  • Stay up to date with the National Immigration Forum who advocates for the value of immigrants and immigration to the US and promotes responsible immigration policies and addresses those that hinder the success of immigrants.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.

This Brief was authored by Kathryn Baron. For inquiries, suggestions or comments email kathryn@usresistnews.org.

Photo by Blake Guidry

ICE Crackdown in Mississippi

ICE Crackdown in Mississippi

Policy Summary
On August 7, ICE conducted a raid in the small town of Forest, Mississippi and nearly 700 undocumented workers were removed from a food processing plant. Later that evening, 300 of these individuals were released back to their families because they would be leaving behind small children unaccompanied, but given ankle bracelets to monitor them while they await court dates. There are very few immigration lawyers in Mississippi who would work pro bono to assist these displaced families, but many lawyers around the country have since volunteered.

In Forest, there is a large Latino population who are now petrified in light of the recent raid. Businesses and grocery stores are slowing down; children are not going to school. There is a widespread fear throughout the community and people are afraid to leave their homes and use money (in case they would need some for an emergency).

Acting ICE director, Matthew Albence, defended the raid by claiming those breaking the law were ultimately the ones to blame for this situation and that the “parents or the individuals that are breaking the law are ultimately the ones that are responsible for placing their children in this situation.”

Analysis
ICE director, Albence uses a rhetoric typical of the Trump Administration, where he gaslights the victims as well as the general public to believe they ‘made’ them react the way they did; as though there was no choice but to punish harshly due to their actions. It also turns anti-immigrant sentiment up a notch by essentially validating their arguments in real time.

This raid has created such a widespread fear among the immigrant community that is only going to force individuals to perhaps have to pursue more obscure and dangerous routes in false attempts at safety from the Trump Administration’s most recent immigration crackdown. Many children are left traumatized after their parent(s) do not return home and they are told their parent(s) were taken away from their place of work and their families. In Forest, most of the schools have given much leeway for children to take time off from school so that they can try and get assistance for their mental health needs.

Resistance Resources:

Photo by Matt Popovich

Asylum Ban 2.0

Asylum Ban 2.0

Policy Summary
As of July 15, the Trump Administration has revised US asylum laws and put forward an asylum ban policy. Migrants coming from Central America who have passed through other countries en route to the US may no longer be able to apply for asylum due to new restrictions. The new ban requires migrants coming from Central America to make an asylum claim at a previous country en route to the US before arriving at the US Southern Border in order to be eligible for asylum in the US. The exceptions include if an individual was trafficked and/or if the migrant applied and was denied asylum in another country. This new rule even applies to unaccompanied children who cross the border alone.

This asylum ban violates domestic and international asylum laws. Congress has existing rules that a migrant cannot be banned from seeking asylum based on their nation of origin. The White House might also be acting outside of their range of power  as they do not have the authority to change laws established by Congress. Thus, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit against the Trump Administration.

Analysis
This new asylum ban is an aggressive push for the Trump Administration’s nativist rhetoric surrounding immigration and xenophobic tendencies. Slowly, but surely, this administration has been increasingly and aggressively trying to end asylum through loose interpretations of existing principles, laws, and filling the gaps with rigid stoppers.

In 2009, nearly 23% of asylum claims were granted. In 2018, only 8% of claims prevailed. Immigration courts are backlogged by more than 800,000 cases, so as it stands there are hundreds of thousands of migrants who will have to wait years for their cases to be heard. In times like these, efficiency is required, not panic or abrupt stops.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.

FWD.us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.

Photo by Kyle Glenn

Expedited Removal: Trump’s Latest Crackdown

Expedited Removal: Trump’s Latest Crackdown

Last week, Secretary Kevin McAleenan, Head  of the Department of Homeland Security, announced that the DHS will be claiming legal power to expedite deportation of undocumented immigrants who cannot prove they have been living in the US for 2 continuous years. He cited the Immigration and Nationality Act and claimed it gives the DHS Secretary the power to decide who qualifies for expedited removals. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1997 (under former President Clinton), says that certain immigrants can be denied entry and/or removed from the US without going through the formal removal procedures, such as a hearing before an immigration judge or a chance to find legal representation.

DHS is using the 1977 Act to say that those who cross into the US by land can be deported without a hearing if they are arrested within the first 2 weeks of arrival and within 100 miles of the border, and those who arrive by sea who cannot prove they have lived in the US for 2 years may be immediately deported. Essentially, McAleenan’s new claim gives the DHS a heightened ability to deport immigrants without due-process as well as granting relatively low-level immigration officers decision making rights.\

The ACLU has already announced their plan to sue over the DHS’s interpretation of the Immigration and Nationality Act that strips immigrants – especially asylum seekers – of many of their individual rights.

Analysis
In a nation where the average undocumented immigrant has lived for 15 years, the Trump Administration’s latest crackdown has instilled widespread fear felt even among those who are here legally. To prove residence in the US over a minimum of 2 years continuously can be difficult even for individuals who are citizens; so, this new interpretation of the Immigration and Nationality Act will elevate the show-me-your-papers environment already affecting many immigrant communities.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.

Photo by unsplash-logoKatie Moum

Trump Signs Humanitarian Aid Bill

Trump Signs Humanitarian Aid Bill

Policy Summary
On July 1, President Trump signed a Congressional  bill enabling $4.6 Billion in humanitarian aid money to be sent to the US Southern Border. The funding is intended to provide relief to immigration agencies who are stretched too thin by the ever-growing number of migrants seeking asylum. The bill will fund immigration related efforts of  the Office of Refugee Resettlement, the Department of Defense, and the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency. Funding also will enable the Justice Department to hire 30 new teams of immigration judges. Roughly $2.9 Billion will go towards the care of children who enter the US unaccompanied;  and $1 Billion has been allocated for the Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) to help process migrants.

The bill that the President signed originated in the Senate. Many progressives in the House  found the existing bill to lack vital migrant protections and firm caps on how long unaccompanied children may be detained. They also preferred a House immigration bill that had more protections for migrant children.  However, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi felt pressure from moderates to pass the Senate’s version in order to 1) get resources to the children fastest and 2) get the bill passed before the July 4 recess. 

Analysis
House Liberals did not find the bill the President signed  specific enough and there is a widespread distrust of the Trump Administration’s use of immigration funds. Thus, Speaker Pelosi’s hasty but difficult decision to rush the bill to the House floor has created a rift among Democrats. Many are opposed to providing ICE with more funding and providing Trump with financial resources without  firm guidelines to prevent misallocation and/or corruption.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • FWD.us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform. 

Photo by Jon Tyson

An Update on Migrant Children in Detention

An Update on Migrant Children in Detention

Policy Summary
In a facility in Homestead, Florida some migrant children are held for many months at a time – including some cases of 6 months. Artwork by the children decorate the building walls with uplifting sentiments like “I have a dream” in Spanish, and “through these doors walk the greatest people in the world!” The facility is a temporary shelter and on federal land next to an Air Reserve Base, so it is unlicensed and not required to follow state child welfare standards.

As is, the facility violates many child welfare standards due to its prison camp nature. There are several cases of children suffering from tremendous psychological self- harm and suicidal thoughts/tendencies. The children wear wristbands that track their movement, walk in single-file lines, and require permission for everything including using the bathroom and obtaining water. Staff members accompany minors almost everywhere and periodically search their rooms. Everyone is allotted 5 minutes to shower, 15 to eat, and are allowed to talk to their family members on the phone twice a week for 10 minutes at a time.

The facility is run by Comprehensive Health Services, Inc., which is a private, for-profit company with a growing line of business in housing immigrant children. It costs approximately $250 per day to house a migrant child at a standard, permanent shelter, so in total at Homestead it is roughly $1.2 million per day. In Homestead, 1,600 migrant children are housed and 250 additional beds have been installed in the last 2 months so they can soon house 2,350 children. Some of the children were separated from their families during Trump’s Zero Tolerance last year, but most crossed alone with the intention of reuniting with a parent or close relative in the US.

Due to an influx of unaccompanied children and a lack of funding to match, unaccompanied children in government detention centers will no longer have English classes, recreational programs or legal aid according to the Department of Health and Human Services because they are not ‘directly necessary for the protection of life and safety.’ However, under the terms of the 1997 Flores court settlement, immigrant children in custody must be taught English 5 days a week and have at least 1 hour of recreational time each day.

Analysis
For the most part, international human rights norms do not encourage nations to jail asylum seekers in any capacity. It is a choice that the Trump Administration has chosen to make. Many immigrant advocates fault poor case management for the lengthy stays many migrant children face. One could argue that, once again, the Trump Administration is using vulnerable children as bargaining chips to secure funds from Congress and demand quick responses.

Educational/language classes and recreational activities are crucial to maintaining physical and mental health while migrant children are in government custody. If the Trump Administration strips them of these basic necessities, it is stripping these vulnerable children of their dignity and humanity, reducing them to being treated like sub-human prisoners. Furthermore, depriving children of legal aid is teetering on the line of setting these children up for failure. Many do not speak English (well) nor do they understand the US legal system enough to make informed decisions without guidance. Legal aids are helpful in making decisions best for the young individuals, telling them when and where to show up for court hearings, and what to do with the lengthy and complicated information presented to them in a language even some of their adult counterparts are not familiar with.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.
  • Kids in Need of Defense: an organization that promotes the protection of children as they migrate alone in search of safety and ensuring children’s rights are upheld and respected.

Photo by Johnny Wall

Trump & Kushner Propose Merit Based Visas

Trump & Kushner Propose Merit Based Visas

Policy Summary
President Trump recently announced a tentative immigration proposal spearheaded by Jared Kushner, his senior advisor and son-in-law. While there are no concrete courses of action outlined in the proposal, the idea is to revamp the visa system and redistribute annual visas based on ‘merit.’ Kushner and Trump want to recruit ‘top talent’ and judge grant visas to individuals with high employability like language capacity and education. Roughly 1 million people receive visas in the US per year and 12% of them are granted based on Trump’s definition of ‘merit.’ Whereas nearly 66% of green cards are issued to those with family ties – First Lady included. The White House wants to flip this distribution without lowering the overall number of visas granted in attempts to limit chain migration – a practice in which individuals are granted citizenship after a certain amount of time being sponsored by a US citizen who often has a familial tie in some capacity – and promote talent based immigration.

This proposal has not been wildly popular among either Party for various reasons. There is a lack of actual structure and identifiable plans within the proposal to turn it into law and it makes no mention of the existing immigrants who live here illegally or the reduction of immigration rates, which Conservatives eagerly await. Democrats see a huge gap in the proposal as it also fails to address a plan of action for DACA recipients, or ‘Dreamers’ as they are affectionately called. Trump had previously wanted to end the program and his lack of acknowledgement of existing immigration matters has left many on Capitol Hill weary, frustrated, and ultimately confused.

Analysis
In his speech, Trump claimed the plan was ‘pro-American, pro-immigrant and pro-worker’ and that the existing system discriminates against ‘genius’ and excessively favors family migration. While, this may seem like a trivial sentiment, it is a rather confusing statement given previous rhetoric surrounding immigration. In the context of the Trump Administration’s previous negative attitudes towards immigration, ‘pro-American’ and ‘pro-immigrant’ come off as contradictory statements.

Nancy Pelosi and many others agree that ‘merit’ is a condescending, umbrella term that could imply those who immigrated with family ties, illegally, or to work blue-collar jobs lack the credibility and respect individuals with ‘merit’ should receive. While, it is in every nation’s best interest to grant visas to individuals who may contribute to its economy, overlooking several components to immigration by overly focusing/selling employability based visas is not exactly a solution to existing issues either. Perhaps, rather than an ambitious switch of the distribution of visas, it is more practical to aim to increase the number of ‘merit’ visas without making it the majority.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.

Photo by unsplash-logoDavid Everett Strickler

Pentagon Diverts Military Funds for Trump’s Wall

Pentagon Diverts Military Funds for Trump’s Wall

Policy Summary
In response to the surge of apprehended migrants at the US Southern Border in recent months, swamped border officials have been hoping for more funding and government support. The Pentagon recently announced that they will be diverting funds from various military operations and programs towards contributing to Trump’s wall along the US Southern Border.  Roughly $1.5 billion will be directed towards Trump’s wall from programs like surveillance plane systems, InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), and Airborne Warning and Control Systems that go alongside ICBMs (AWACS). Of the $1.5 billion, $604 million will come from the Afghan Security Forces Fund, $344 million will be from the Air Force, and $251 million from a project that was intended to destroy chemical agents in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993) ban of chemical weapons. In addition to the pledged $1.5 billion, there will be an additional $1 billion of Army personnel funds and $3.6 billion from military construction projects potentially diverted as well. The acting Defense Secretary, Patrick Shanahan, has confirmed diverting the funds will not impact military readiness.

Analysis
This monetary diversion comes shortly after the Army’s personnel budget freed up $1 billion that the Defense Department transferred to wall construction in March.  There are no official laws in place that bar Secretary Shanahan from diverting these funds, but moving forward it could pose difficulties  for the Defense Department the next time military leaders go to Capitol Hill to seek additional funding. The diversion of these funds also proves the Trump Administration  isruthless in their single-track goal of building an essentially, negatively symbolic yet useless wall.

Engagement Resources

  • The ACLU: a non-profit with a longstanding commitment to preserving and protecting the individual rights and liberties the Constitution and US laws guarantee all its citizens. You can also donate monthly to counter Trump’s attacks on people’s rights. Recently, the ACLU has filed a lawsuit challenging the separation of families at the border.
  • The National Immigration Law Center: an organization that exclusively dedicates itself to defending and furthering the rights of low income immigrants and strives to educate decision makers on the impacts and effects of their policies on this overlooked part of the population.
  • us: an organization that aims to promote the tech community to support policies that keep the American Dream alive. They specifically and currently focus on immigration reform.

Photo by unsplash-logoIlario Piatti

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